November 13, 2016
Think About Workflows Before You Think About FeaturesSunday morning's often my time for doing admin and logistical-type stuff, like booking flights or trains or hotels.
Today I searched for a hotel near a client's offices, then booked through the chain's website. After that I copied and pasted the hotel's address to search on Google Maps for a decent restaurant nearby, and then pasted the restaurant's name into Trip Advisor to see reviews. Satisfied, I then pasted the hotel's postcode into an app for booking a taxi to the client site on the first morning because it was 2 miles away (and I find walking to strange places in strange towns a bit risky on the first day).
Finally, I searched on Trainline and booked reserved seats, because it's way cheaper to do in advance.
In all, I used 6 different websites:
1. Google Maps (to find a hotel near client offices)
2. Hotel website to book a room
3. Google Maps again to find a restaurant nearby
4. Trip Advisor to see reviews of the restaurant
5. Restaurant website to reverse a table for dinner
6. Taxi booking site
7. Trainline to find and reserve seats for a return journey
And it occurred to me that there was a lot of browser tabs and copying and pasting involved, creating the impression of some kind of workflow.
This workflow sits above the use cases of Google Maps, the hotel's website, Trip Advisor, the restaurant's website, the taxi booking site, and Trainline.
We can visualise how this workflow maps on to the 6 different software systems involved, using a simple technique borrowed from the book Business Modeling with UML (and even as I type this, I'm copying and pasting the URL to the book, part of yet another higher-level workflow):
The reason I'm mentioning all of this is three-fold: firstly, if I were designing these systems, I would find this kind of context very useful. Right now, to move from one step in the workflow to the next, I have to open a new browser tab, go to the right web page, and paste in data from a previous step. Clunky! Studying these real world workflows can help us to smooth out these kinks. For example, if we found that 50% of people who book hotel rooms on our site then go on to search for nearby restaurants, we could add a link that will take us straight to Google Maps and fill in the data for us.
Secondly, and more importantly, when software design's done right, we start by thinking about business goals and about business workflows, not system features. This technique helps us to identify system use cases from the outside in, starting with the business context. That's as it should be.
And thirdly, it makes good business sense, when we're designing applications, to ask ourselves "where are the user's coming from?" Have they just booked a hotel? Did they just book a flight? Work your way backwards and build relationships with the developers of software that might - indirectly via search engines, perhaps - be sending users our way, so we can work with third parties to smooth that path. And, likewise, smooth the user's path to downstream activities in their workflow. What are they likely to want to do next? In sales and marketing, it's essential to understand what triggers buyers' needs, so you can pitch your tent right outside that triggering event, so to speak. There's a reason why late-night petrol stations sell flowers and firelighters, and it has absolutely nothing to do with selling petrol.
Arguably, this is how the web should work now. Not links to content, but controls for triggering actions in other people's systems - an event-based (rather than content-based) model. But it doesn't. So we'll have to hand-wire that sort of thing ourselves.
And this isn't just relevant to web-based workflows, of course. An end-to-end sales scenario in your company many involve multiple workflows, enacted using multiple systems. Work to understand those workflows, and smooth the user's path from one step to the next. See them copying and pasting data from one system to another? That's a hint that there's more automation to be done.
Posted 11 months, 2 days ago on November 13, 2016