December 9, 2018
Big Dependency Problems Lie In The Small DetailsJust a quick thought about dependencies. Quite often, when we talk about dependencies in software, we mean dependencies between modules, or between components or services. But I think perhaps that can blinker us to a wider and more useful understanding.
A dependency is a relationship between two pieces of code where a change to one could break the other.
If we consider these two lines of code, deleting the first line would break the second line. The expression x + 2 depends on the declaration of x.
Dependencies increase the cost of changing code by requiring us, when we change one thing in our code, to then change all the code that depends on it. (Which, in turn can force us to have to change all the code that depends on that. And so on.)
If our goal is to keep the cost of changing code low, one of the ways we can achieve that is to try to localise these ripples so that - as much as possible - they're contained within the same module. We do this by packaging dependent code in the same module (cohesion), and minimising the dependencies between code in different modules (coupling). The general term for this is encapsulating.
If I move x and y into different classes, we necessarily have to live with a dependency between them.
Now, deleting x in Foo will break y in Bar. Our ripple spreads across the class boundary.
Of course, in order to organise our code into manageable modules, we can't avoid having some dependencies that cross the boundaries. This is often what people mean when they say that splitting up a class "introduces dependencies". It doesn't, though. It redistributes them. The dependency was always there. It just crosses a boundary now.
And this is important to remember. We've got to write the code we've got to write. And that code must have dependencies - unless you're smart enough to write lines of code that in no way refer to other lines of code, of course.
Remember: dependencies between classes are actually dependencies between the code in those classes.
As we scale up from modules to components or services, the same applies. Dependencies beween components are actually dependencies beteween modules in those components, which are actually dependencies between code inside those modules. If I package Foo in one microservice and Bar in another: hey presto! Microservice dependencies!
I say all of this because I want to encourage developers, when faced with dependency issues in large-scale architecture, to consider looking at the code itself to see if the solution might actually lie at that level. You'd be surprised how often it does.
Posted 5 months, 6 days ago on December 9, 2018