April 24, 2010
Software Is Both Art & Science. Can We Move On Now?Bonjour, mes enfants.
SEMAT has gotten me thinking. Any mention of "engineering" and "science" in software development seems to polarise opinion.
Undoubtedly, there's a large section of the software development community who believe those words simply do not apply. Software development is not a science. It's an art. Or a craft. Like basket weaving. It's not engineering. No sir!
And there's an equally large section of the community who believe the exact opposite. Software development is a science. It is engineering. We can apply scientific principles to shape predictable, well-engineered end products.
Of course, they're both wrong.
Anyone who dismisses the notion of any kind of scientific basis for software development is running away from reality. Everything that exists has a scientific basis. Even American Idol. You just have to understand it. That we don't fully understand the science of software does not mean that no such science exists or that we'll never understand. I just can't help being reminded of UFOlogists who claim that "science cannot be applied to the study of UFOs". What they mean, of course, is "I've got a good thing going here selling my unscientific ideas to these schmucks, and I'd like to keep it that way, thanks".
And anyone who believes that software development can be completely tamed by science is equally deluded. There are sciences - emerging in recent decades - that teach us that there are many things in the world that, while it's possible that we can fully understand them, we will never be able to control them. Chaos is science. And software development is mostly chaos. Any vision of "software engineering", where pulling lever A causes X and pulling lever B causes Y with certainty, is the product of naivity at the macro, project scale. Life just isn't like that. Clockwork might be, but life isn't. Software development is intractably complex and unpredictable.
In the real world, biology has come up with processes that deal effectively - but not predictably - with intractably complex problems. Evolution is one such process. Evolution solves complex, multi-dimensional problems by iterating through generations of potential solutions. That is science. We can understand it. But we cannot even begin to predict what solution a process of evolution will reach, or how long it will take to reach it.
The clockwork, Newtonian paradigm of "software process enginering" is fundamentally flawed. And anyone who believes that it's possible to attain "value" deterministically is deeply mistaken. "If we pull lever A, we'll ship an extra 10,000 units". Give me a break!
Flawed, too, is any notion that this means that there's no engineering at all to be done in creating good software. I doubt anyone would claim that making rock music is "engineering" - well, anyone sane, at least. But there is science that can be applied within this process.
It's possible mathematically to predict what effect the choice of software compressor and the compression settings used will have on the amplitude of a recording across a certain frequency range. Indeed, it is helpful in getting the best-sounding mix. There is such a thing as "audio engineering" within the music production process. Granted, it's chiefly a creative process. But there is useful science we can appky within in to help tweak the results closer to perfection.
Similarly, while software design is chiefly a creative process, it can be useful to know if the code we're writing "smells" in any significant way. Some code smells can be detected just by looking at the code and using our judgement. Others are more subtle and harder to spot, but just as damaging to maintainability. Code analysis tools, as they grow more sophisticated, can complement our "eye for good design" every bit as much as audio engineering tools complement our "ear for a good mix" and music composition aids can complement our "ear for a good tune".
The trick, I believe, is to find the balance and work within the limitations of science and engineering and creative disciplines. Trying to figure out the formula for "valuable software" is every bit as futile as looking for a formula for making "hit records". And relying entirely on your eyes and ears to refine an end product has severe limitations. For millenia, we've used tools and theory to tweak and refine all manner of creative end products. We even have a word for it: "machine-tooled". The fact that you can fit a computer more powerful than all of the computers in the world were 30 years ago in your breast pocket, and it looks good, is testament to this symbiosis of science and art.
We can continue to refine and extend our scientific understanding of code and coding through research and exploration, just like any science. And new and useful tools will emerge from that understanding that will make it possible for us to produce better quality code, for sure.
And we can also continue to develop and refine the art of software development. Through reflection, practice and sharing.
There is such a thing as "software engineering", but it has limited scope, just like "audio engineering". Specifically, it's limited to things we can predict and can control, like what happens to coupling and cohesion if we move a class from one package to another.
The bigger picture of "delivering value" is a complex human endevour, and creativity, judgement and more than a sprinkling of luck is all we have that we can bring to bear in any meaningful way at this level. We may be capable of understanding, with the benefit of hindsight, why Feature X was used more than Feature Y when the software was released. But then, with hindsight, we understand quite a lot about volcanos and hurricanes, too. These are things that can only be understood with hindsight, really. We don't see them coming until they're almost upon us, and we have two choices - stay and risk everything or get out of the way and live to fight another day.
In years to come, I'll probably notice more and more a difference between "hand-rolled" software and software that has been written with some help from "software engineering" tools - the more grown-up descendants of tools like XDepend and Jester.
But I sincerely doubt I will ever be able to tell at the start of a project whether the resulting software will enjoy success or not. Sure, I'll be able to look back on projects and say "hey, y'know what we got wrong?" But far in advance, the outcome is every bit as unknowable as a hurricane, volcanic eruption or hit record. So where things like requirements and processes and "enterprise architeture" are concerned, I'll stick with arts and crafts.
Posted 8 years, 8 months ago on April 24, 2010