October 12, 2018
TDD Training - Part I (Classic TDD), London, Sat Dec 1stMy flagship Codemanship TDD training course returns in a series of 3 standalone Saturday workshops aimed at self-funding learners.
It's the exact same highly popular training we've delivered to more than 2,000 developers since 2009, with 100% hands-on learning reinforced by our jam-packed 200-page TDD course book.
Part 1 is on Saturday Dec 1st in central London, and it's amazingly good value at just £99.
Part I goes in-depth on "classic" TDD, the super-important refactoring discipline, and software design principles that you can apply to your code as it grows and evolves to keep it easy to change so you can maintain the pace of development.
- Why do TDD?
- An introduction to TDD
- Red, Green, Refactor
- The Golden Rule
- Working backwards from assertions
- Testing your tests
- One reason to fail
- Writing self-explanatory tests
- Speaking the customer's language
- Triangulating designs
- The Refactoring discipline
- Software Design Principles
- Simple Design
- Tell, Don’t Ask
The average price of a public 1-day dev training course, per person, is around £600-800. This is fine if your company is picking up the tab.
But we've learned over the years that many devs get no training paid for by their employer, so we appreciate that many of you are self-funding your professional development. Our Saturday workshops are priced to be accessible to professional developers.
In return, developers who've attended our weekend workshops have recommended us to employers and colleagues, and most of the full-price client-site training and coaching we do comes via these referrals.
Please be advised that we do not allow corporate bookings on our workshops for self-funders. Group bookings are limited to a maximum of 4 people. If you would like TDD training for your team(s), please contact me at firstname.lastname@example.org to discuss on-site training.
Find out more at the Eventbrite course page
October 6, 2018
Be The Code You Want To See In The WorldIt's no big secret that I'm very much from the "Just Do It" school of thought on how to apply good practices to software development. I meet teams all the time who complain that they've been forbidden to do, say, TDD by their managers. My answer is always "Next time, don't ask".
After 25 years doing this for a living, much of that devoted to mentoring teams in the developer arts , I've learned two important lessons:
1. It's very difficult to change someone's mind once it's made up. I wasted a lot of time "selling" the benefits of technical practices like unit testing and refactoring to people for whom no amount of evidence or logic was ever going to make them try it. It's one of the reasons I don't do much conference speaking these days.
2. The best strategies rely on things within our control. Indeed, strategies that rely on things beyond our control aren't really strategies at all. They're just wishful thinking.
The upshot of all this is an approach to working that has two core tenets:
1. Don't seek permission
2. Do what you can do
Easy to say, right? It does imply that, as a professional, you have control over how you work.
Here's the thing: as a professional, you have control over how you work. It's not so much a matter of getting that control, as recognising that - in reality - because you're the one writing the code, you already have that control. Your boss is very welcome to write the code themselves if they want it done their way
Of course, with great power comes great responsibility. You want control? Take control. But be sure to be acting in the best interests of your customer and other stakeholders, including the other developers on your team. Code is something you inflict on people. Do it with kindness.
And so there you have it. A mini philosophy. Don't rant and rave about how code should be done. Just do it. Be the code you want to see in the world.
Plenty of developers talk a good game, but their software tells a different story. It's often the case that the great and worthy and noble ideas you see presented in books and at conferences bear little resemblence to how their proponents really work. I've been learning, through Codemanship, that it's more effective to show teams what you do. Talk is cheap. That's why my flagship TDD workshop doesn't have any slides. Every idea is illustrated with real code, every practice is demonstrated right in front of you.
And there isn't a single practice in any Codemanship course I haven't applied many times on real software for real businesses. It's all real, and it all really works in the real world.
What typically prevents teams from applying them isn't their practicality, or how difficult they are to learn. (Although don't underestimate the learning curves.) The obstacles are normally whether they have the will to give it a proper try, and tied up in that, whether they're allowed to try it.
My advice is simple: learn to do it under the radar, in the background, under the bedsheets with a torch, and then the decision to apply it on real software in real teams for real customers will be entirely yours.
October 1, 2018
50% Off Codemanship Training for Start-ups and CharitiesOne of the most fun aspects of running a dev training company is watching start-ups I helped a few years ago go from strength to strength.
The best part is seeing how some customers are transforming their markets (I don't use the "d" word), and reaping the long-term benefits of being able to better sustain the pace of innovation through good code craft.
I want to do more to help new businesses, so I've decided that - as of today - start-ups less than 5 years old, with less than 50 employees, will be able to buy Codemanship code craft training half-price.
I'm also extending that offer to non-profits. Registered charities will also be able to buy Codemanship training for just 50% of the normal price.
September 28, 2018
Micro-cycles & Developing Your Inner Egg TimerWhen I'm coaching developers in TDD and refactoring, I find it important to stress the benefits of keeping one foot on the path of working code at all times.
I talk about Little Red Riding Hood, and how she was warned not to stray off the path into the deep dark forest. Bad things happen in the deep dark forest. Similarly, I warn devs to stay on that path of code that works - code that's shippable - and not go wandering off into the deep dark forest of code that's broken.
Of course, in practice, we can't change code without breaking it. So the real skill is in learning how to make the changes we need to make by briefly stepping off the path and stepping straight back on again.
This requires developers to build a kind of internal egg timer that nudges them when they haven't seen their tests pass for too long.
An exercise I've used to develop my internal egg timer uses a real egg timer (or the timer on my smartphone). When I'm mindfully practicing refactoring, for example, I'll set a timer to countdown for 60 seconds, and start it the moment I edit any code.
The moment a source file goes "dirty" - no longer compiles or no longer passes the tests - the countdown starts. I have to get back to passing tests before the sands run out (or the alarm goes off).
I'll do that for maybe 10-15 minutes, then I'll drop the countdown to 50 seconds and do another 10-15 minutes. Then 40 seconds. Then 30. Always trying, as best I can, to get what I need to do done and get back to passing tests before the countdown ends.
I did this every day for about 45-60 minutes for several months, and what I found at the end was that I'd grown a sort of internal countdown. Now, when I haven't seen the tests pass for a few minutes, I get a little knot in my stomach. It makes me genuinely uncomfortable.
I do a similar exercise with TDD, but the countdowns apply the moment I have a failing test. I have 60 seconds to make the test pass. Then 50. Then 40. Then 30. This encourages me to take smaller steps, in tighter micro-cycles.
If my test requires me to take too big a leap, I have to scale back or break it down to simpler steps to get me where I want to go.
The skill is in making progress with one foot firmly on the path of working code at all times. Your inner egg timer is the key.
September 25, 2018
Third-Generation Testing - Øredev 2018, Malmö, November 22ndIf you're planning on coming to Øredev in Sweden this November, I'm running a brand new training workshop on the final day about Third-Generation Software Testing.
First-generation testing was manual: running the program and clicking the buttons ourselves. We quickly learned that this was slow and often patchy, creating a severe bottleneck in development cycles.
Second-generation testing removed that bottleneck by writing code to test our code.
But what about the tests we didn't think of?
Exploratory testing brought us back to a manual process of exploring what else might be possible - what combinations of inputs, user actions and pathways - using the code we delivered, outside of the behaviours encoded in our automated tests.
Manual exploratory testing suffers from the same setbacks as any kind of manual testing, though. It's slow, and can miss heaps of cases in complex logic.
Third-generation testing automates the generation of the test cases themselves, enabling us to explore much wider state spaces than a manual process could ever hope to achieve. With a little extra test code, and a bit of ingenuity, you can explore thousands, tens of thousands, hundreds of thousands and even millions of extra test cases - combinations, paths, random inputs and ranges - using tools you already know.
In this workshop, we'll explore some simple techniques for adapting and reusing our existing unit tests to exhaustively test our critical code. We'll also look at techniques for identifying what code might need us to go further, and how we can use Cloud technology to execute millions of extra tests in minutes.
You can find out more and book your place at http://oredev.org/2018/sessions/third-generation-software-testing
August 6, 2018
Agile BaggageIn the late 1940s, a genuine mystery gripped the world as it rebuilt after WWII. Thousands of eye witnesses - including pilots, police officers, astronomers, and other credible observers - reported seeing flying objects that had performance characteristics far beyond any known natural or artificial phenomenon.
These "flying saucers" - as they became popularly known - were the subject of intense study by military agencies in the US, the UK and many other countries. Very quickly, the extraterrestrial hypothesis - that these objects were spacecraft from another world - caught the public's imagination, and "flying saucer" became synonymous with Little Green Men.
In an attempt to outrun that pop culture baggage, serious studies of these objects adopted the less sensational term "Unidentified Flying Object". But that, too, soon became shorthand for "alien spacecraft". These days, you can't be taken seriously if you study UFOs, because it lumps you in with some very fanciful notions, and some - how shall we say? - rather colorful characters. Scientists don't study UFOs any more. It's not good for the career.
These days, scientific studies of strange lights in the sky - like the Ministry of Defence's Project Condign - use the term Unidentified Aerial Phenomena (UAP) in an attempt to outrun the cultural baggage of "UFOs".
The fact remains, incontravertibly, that every year thousands of witnesses see things in the sky that conform to no known physical phenomena, and we're no closer to understanding what it is they're seeing after 70 years of study. The most recent scientific studies, in the last 3 decades, all conclude that a portion of reported "UAPs" are genuine unknowns, they they are of real defence significance, and worthy of further scientific study. But well-funded studies never seem to materialise, because of the connotation that UFOs = Little Green Men.
The well has been poisoned by people who claim to know the truth about what these objects are, and they'll happily reveal all in their latest book or DVD - just £19.95 from all good stores (buy today and get a free Alien Grey lunch box!) If these people would just 'fess up that, in reality, they don't know what they are, either - or , certainly, they can't prove their theories - the scientific community could get back to trying to find out, like they attempted to in the late 1940s and early 1950s.
Agile Software Development ("agile" for short) is also now dragging a great weight of cultural baggage behind it, much of it generated by a legion of people also out to make a fast buck by claiming to know the "truth" about what makes businesses successful with technology.
Say "agile" today, and most people think you're talking about Scrum (and its scaled variations). The landscape is very different to 2001, when the term was coined at a ski resort in Utah. Today, there are about 20,000 agile coaches in the UK alone. Two thirds of them come from non-technical backgrounds. Like the laypeople who became "UFO researchers", many agile coaches apply a veneer of pseudoscience to what is - in essence - a technical persuit.
The result is an appearance of agility that often lacks the underlying technical discipline to make it work. Things like unit tests, continuous integration, design principles, refactoring: they're every bit as important as user stories and stand-up meetings and burndown charts.
Many of us saw it coming years ago. Call it "frAgile", "Cargo Cult agile", or "WAgile" (Waterfall-Agile) - it was on the cards as soon as we realised Agile Software Development was being hijacked by management consultants.
Post-agilism was an early response: an attempt to get back to "doing what works". Software Craftsmanship was a more defined reaction, reaffirming the need for technical discipline if we're to be genuinely responsive to change. But these, too, accrued their baggage. Software craft today is more of a cult of personality, dominated by a handful of the most vocal proponents of what has become quite a narrow interpretation of the technical disciplines of writing software. Post-agilism devolved into a pseudo-philosophical talking shop, never quite getting down to the practical detail. Their wells, too, have been poisoned.
But teams are still delivering software, and some teams are more successfully delivering software than others. Just as with UFOs, beneath the hype, there's a real phenomenon to be understood. It ain't Scrum and it ain't Lean and it certainly ain't SAFe. But there's undeniably something that's worthy of further study. Agile has real underlying insights to offer - not necessarily the ones written on the Manifesto website, though.
But, to outrun the cultural baggage, what shall we call it now?
July 5, 2018
The Grand Follies of Software DevelopmentJust time for a few thoughts on software deveopment's grand follies - things many teams chase that tend to make things worse.
Scale - on and on and on we go about scaling up or scaling out our software systems to handle millions of users and tens of thousands of requests every second. By optimising our architectures to work on Facebook scale, or Netflix scale, we potentially waste a lot of time and money and opportunities to get a product out there by doing something much simpler. The bottom line is that almost all software will never need to work on that scale, just like almost every person will never need a place to moor their $120 million yacht. If you're ever lucky enough to have that problem, good for you! Facebook and the others solved their scaling problems when they needed to, and they had the resources to do it because of their enormous scale.
Likewise the trend for scaling up software development itself. Organisations that set out to build large products - millions or tens of millions of lines of code - are going about it fundamentally arse-backwards. If you look at big software products today, they typically started out as small software products. Sure, MS Word today is over 10M LOC, but Word 1.0 was tens of thousands of lines of code. That original small team created something useful that became very popular, and it grew incrementally over time. Nature handles complexity very well, where design is concerned. It doesn't arrive at something like the human brain in a single step. Like Facebook and their scaling problems, Microsoft crossed that bridge when they got to it, by which time they had the money to crack it. And it takes a lot of money to create a new version of Word. There's no economy of scale, and at the scale they do it now, very little latitude for genuine innovation. Microsoft's big experiments these days are relatively small, like they always had to be. Focus on solving the problems you have now.
That can be underpinned by a belief that some software systems are irreducibly complex - that a Word processor would be unusable without the hundreds of features of MS Word. Big complex software, in reality, starts as small simple software and grows. Unless, of course, we set out to reproduce software that has become big and complex. Which is fine, if that's your business model. But you're going to need a tonne of cash, and there are no guarantees yours will fare better in the market. So it's one heck of a gamble. Typically, such efforts are funded by businesses (or governments) with enormous resources, and they usually fail spectacularly. Occasionally we hear about them, but a keenness to manage their brand means most get swept under the carpet - which might explain why organisations continue to attempt them.
Reuse - oh, this was a big deal in the 90s and early noughties. I came across project after project attempting to build reusable components and services that the rest of the organisation could stitch together to create working business solutions. Such efforts suffered from spectacular levels of speculative generality, trying to solve ALL THE PROBLEMS and satisfy such a wide range of use cases that the resulting complexity simply ran away from them. We eventually - well, some of us, anyway - learned that it's better to start by building something useful. Reuse happens organically and opportunistically. The best libraries and frameworks are discovered lurking in the duplication inside and across code bases.
"Waste" - certain fashionable management practices focus on reducing or eliminating waste from the software development process. Which is fine if we're talking about building every developer their own office complex, but potentially damaging f we're talking abut eliminating the "waste" of failed experiments. That can stifle innovation and lead - ironically - to the much greater waste of missed opportunities. Software's a gamble. You're gonna burn a lot of pancakes. Get used to it, and embrace throwing those burned pancakes away.
Predictability - alongside the management trend for "scaling up" the process of innovation comes the desire to eliminate the risks from it. This, too, is an oxymoron: innovation is inherently risky. The bigger the innovation, the greater the risk. But it's always been hard to get funding for risky ventures. Which is why we tend to find that the ideas that end up being greenlit by businesses are typically not very innovative. This is because we're still placing big bets at the crap table of software development, and losing is not an option. Instead of trying to reduce or eliminate risk, businesses should be reducing the size of their bets and placing more of them - a lot more. This is intimately tied to our mad desire to do everything at "enterprise scale". It's much easier to innovate with lots of small, independent teams trying lots of small-scale experiments and rapidly iterating their ideas. Iterating is the key to this process. So much of management theory in software development is about trying to get it right first time, even today. It's actually much easier and quicker and cheaper to get it progressively less wrong. And, yes, like natural evolution, there will be dead ends. The trick is to avoid falling to the Sunk Cost fallacy of having invested so much time and money in that dead end that you feel compelled to persist.
"Quick'n'dirty" - I shouldn't need to elaborate on this. It's one of the few facts we can rely on in software development. In the vast majority of cases, development teams would deliver sooner if they took more care. and yet, still, we fall for it. Start-ups especially have this mindset ("move fast and break things"). Noted that over time, the most successful tech start-ups tend to abandon this mentality. And, yes, I am suggesting that this way of thinking is a sign of a dev organisation's immaturity. There. I've said it.
June 27, 2018
Team CraftWe're a funny old lot, software developers.
90% of us are working on legacy code 90% of the time, and yet I can only think of one book about working with legacy code that's been published in the last 20 years.
We spend between 50%-80% of our time reading code, and yet I can only think of a couple of books about writing code that's easier to understand that have ever been published.
We have a problem with our priorities, it would seem. And maybe none more so than in the tiny amount of focus we place on how we work together as teams to get shit done.
Our ability to work together, to communicate, to coordinate, to build shared undersanding and reach shared decisions and to make stuff happen - I call it Team Craft - rarely gets an airing in books, training courses and conferences.
In my TDD workshop, we play a little game called Evil FizzBuzz. If you've applied for a developer job in recent years, you may well have been asked to do the FizzBuzz coding exercise. It's a trivial problem - output a list of integers from 1 to 100, replace any that are divisible by 3 with "Fizz", any that are divisible by 5 with "Buzz", and any that are divisible by 3 and 5 with "FizzBuzz". Simple as peas.
I made it "evil" by splitting the rules up and requiring that individual pairs only work on code for their rule. (e.g., they can only work on generating a sequence from 1..100, or only on replacing numbers with Fizz, or Buzz etc).
They must coordinate their efforts to produce a single unified solution that passes my customer acceptance test - a complete comma-delimited sequence of the required length, with the numbers, the Fizzes, the Buzzes and FizzBuzzes in the right place. This is an exercise - superficially - in Continuous Integration. But, it turns out, it exercises far more than that.
An average developer can complete FizzBuzz in less than 30 minutes. An average team can't complete it in under an hour. No, seriously. 9 out of 10 teams who attempt it don't complete it. Go figure!
Watching teams attempt Evil FizzBuzz is fascinating. The first observation I've made - from dozens of teams who've tried it - is that the individual technical skills of the developers on the team appears to have little bearing on how they'll fare.
FizzBuzz is easy. It doesn't require strong Code Fu. And yet, somehow, it defeats 90% of teams. There must be something else at play here; some other skillset outside of coding and unit testing and refactoring and Git and wotnot that determines how a team will perform.
Over the years since it was introduced, I've developed an instinct for which teams will crack it. I can usually tell within the first 10 minutes if they're going to complete Evil FizzBuzz within the hour, just by looking at the way they interact.
Here are the most typical kinds of rocks I've seen teams' ships dashed on trying to complete Evil FizzBuzz.
2. Priorities - the team spends 30 minutes discussing the design, and then someone starts to think about setting up the GitHub repository and a CI server.
3. Forgetting They're In a Team - I see this one a lot. For example, someone sets up a repository, then forgets to invite the rest of the team to contribute to it. Or - and this is my favourite - someone writes their code in a totally different set of project files, only realising too late that their bit isn't included in the end product. To coordinate efforts in such a small solution space, developers need to be hyper-aware of what the rest of the team are doing.
4. Trying To Win The Argument Instead Of The Game - as with 1-3, this is also very common on development teams. We get bogged down in trying to "win" the debate about what language we should use or whether we should use the Chain of Responsibility design pattern or go for tabs or spaces, and completely lose sight of what we're setting to achieve in the first place. This effect seems to escalate the more technically strong individuals on the team are. Teams of very senior developers or software architects tend to crash and burn more frequently than teams of average developers. We've kind of made this rod for our own backs, as a profession. Career advancement tends to rely more on winning arguments than achieving business goals. Sadly, life's like that. Just look at the people who end up in boardrooms or in government: prepared for leadership in the debating societies of our top schools and colleges. Organisations where that isn't part of the culture tend to do much better at Evil FizzBuzz.
5. All Talk, No Code, No Pictures - the more successful teams get around a whiteboard and visualise what they're going to do. They build a better shared understanding, sooner. The teams who stand around in a circle talking about it invariably end up with every pair walking away with a different understanding, leading to the inevitable car crash at the end. It's especially important for each pair to understand how their part fits in with the whole. The teams that do best tend to agree quickly on how the parts will interact. I've known this for years: the key to scaling up development is figuring out the contracts early. Use of stubs and mocks can help turn this into an explicit executable understanding. Also, plugging their laptops into the projector and demonstrating what they intend is always an option - but one that few teams take up. To date, no team has figured out that Mob Programming is allowed by the rules of the exercise, but a couple of teams came close in their use of the available technology in the room.
6. Focus On Plans, Not Goals - It all seems to be on track; with 5 minutes to go the team are merging their respective parts, only to discover at the very last minute that they haven't solved the problem I set them. Because they weren't setting out to. They came up with a plan, and focused on executing that plan. The teams that crack it tend to revisit the goals continually throughout the exercise. Does this work? Does this work? Does this work? Equally, teams who get 30 minutes in and don't realise they've used 50% of their time show a lack of focus on getting the job done. I announce the time throughout, to try and make them aware. But I suspect often - when they've got their heads down coding and are buried in the plan - they don't hear me. The teams who set themselves milestones - e.g. by 20 minutes we should have a GitHub repository with everyone contributing and a CI server showing a green build so we can start pushing - tend to do especially well.
From long experience on real teams, I've observed relationships between these elements of Team Craft. Teams that lack clear objectives tend to consume themselves with internal debate and "pissing contests". It also tends to make prioritising nigh-on impossible. Tabs vs spaces matters a lot more when you think you have infinite time to debate it. Lack of visualisation of what we're going to do - or attempt to do - tends to lead to less awareness of the team, and less effective coordination. And all of these factors combined tend to lead to an inability to make shared decisions when they're needed.
But before you conclude from this that the individual technical skills don't matter, I need to tell you about the final rule of Evil FizzBuzz: once the build goes green for the first time, it must not go red again. Breaking the build means disqualification. (Hey, it's an exercise in Continuous Integration...)
A few teams get dashed on those rocks, and the lesson from that is that technical discipline does matter. How we work together as teams is crucial, but potentially all for nought if we don't take good care of the fundamentals.
June 21, 2018
Adopting TDD - The Codemanship RoadmapI've been doing Test-Driven Development for 20 years, and helping dev teams to do it for almost as long. Over that time I've seen thousands of developers and hundreds of teams try to adopt this crucial enabling practice. So I've built a pretty clear picture of what works and what doesn't when you're adopting TDD.
TDD has a steep learning curve. It fundamentally changes the way you approach code, putting the "what" before the "how" and making us work backwards from the question. The most experienced developers, with years of test-after, find it especially difficult to rewrite their internal code to make it comfortable. It's like learning to write with your other hand.
I've seen teams charge at the edifice of this learning curve, trying to test-drive everything from Day #1. That rarely works. Productivity nosedives, and TDD gets jettisoned at the next urgent deadline.
The way to climb this mountain is to ascend via a much shallower route, with a more gentle and realistic gradient. You will most probably not be test-driving all your code in the first week. Or the first month. typically, I find it takes 4-6 months for teams to get the hang of TDD, with regular practice.
So, I have a recommended Codemanship Route To TDD which has worked for many individuals and teams over the last decade.
Week #1: For teams, an orientaton in TDD is a really good idea. It kickstarts the process, and gets everyone talking about TDD in practical detail. My 3-day TDD workshop is designed specifically with this in mind. It shortcuts a lot of conversations, clears up a bunch of misconceptions, and puts a rocket under the team's ambitions to succeed with TDD.
Week #2-#6: Find a couple of hours a week, or 20 minutes a day, to do simple TDD "katas", and focus on the basic Red-Green-Refactor cycle, doing as many micro-iterations as you can to reinforce the habits
Week #7-#11: Progress onto TDD-ing real code for 1 day a week. This could be production code you're working on, or a side project. The goal for that day is to focus on doing it right. The other 4 days of the week, you can focus on getting stuff done. So, overall, your productivity maybe only dips a bit each week. As you gain confidence, widen this "doing it right" time.
Week #12-#16: By this time, you should find TDD more comfortable, and don't struggle to remember what you're supposed to do and when. Your mind is freed up to focus on solving the problem, and TDD is becoming your default way of working. You'll be no less productive TDD-ing than you were befpre (maybe even more productive), and the code you produce will be more reliable and easier to change.
The Team Dojo: Some teams are keen to put their new TDD skills to the test. An exercise I've seen work well for this is my Team Dojo. It's a sufficiently challenging problem, and really works on those individual skills as well as collaborative skills. Afterwards, you can have a retrospective on how the team did, examining their progress (customer tests passed), code quality and the disciplie that was applied to it. Even in the most experienced experienced teams, the doj will reveal gaps that need addressing.
Graduation: TDD is hard. Learning to test-drive code involves all sorts of dev skills, and teams that succeed tell me they feel a real sense of achievement. It can be good to celebrate that achievement. Whether it's a party, or a little ceremony or presentation, when organisations celebrate the achievement with their dev teams, it shows reall commitment to them and to their craft.
Of course, you don't have to do it my way. What's important is that you start slow and burn your pancakes away from the spotlight of real projects with real deadlines. Give yourself the space and the safety to get it wrong, and over time you'll get it less and less wrong.
If you want to talk about adopting TDD on your team, drop me a line.
June 10, 2018
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